International Womens Day has been observed since in the early 1900s, a time of great expansion and turbulence in the industrialized world that saw booming population growth and the rise of radical ideologies.
Great unrest and critical debate was occurring amongst women. Womens oppression and inequality was spurring women to become more vocal and active in campaigning for change. Then in 1908, 15,000 women marched through New York City demanding shorter hours, better pay and voting rights.
In accordance with a declaration by the Socialist Party of America, the first National Womans Day (NWD) was observed across the United States on 28 February. Women continued to celebrate NWD on the last Sunday of February until 1913.
n 1910 a second International Conference of Working Women was held in Copenhagen. A woman named a Clara Zetkin (Leader of the ‘Womens Office for the Social Democratic Party in Germany) tabled the idea of an International Womens Day. She proposed that every year in every country there should be a celebration on the same day – a Womens Day – to press for their demands. The conference of over 100 women from 134 countries, representing unions, socialist parties, working womens clubs, and including the first three women elected to the Finnish parliament, greeted Zetkins suggestion with unanimous approval and thus International Womens Day was the result.
Following the decision agreed at Copenhagen in 1911, International Womens Day (IWD) was honoured the first time in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland on 19 March. More than one million women and men attended IWD rallies campaigning for womens rights to work, vote, be trained, to hold public office and end discrimination. However less than a week later on 25 March, the tragic ‘Triangle Fire in New York City took the lives of more than 140 working women, most of them Italian and Jewish immigrants. This disastrous event drew significant attention to working conditions and labour legislation in the United States that became a focus of subsequent International Womens Day events. 1911 also saw womens ‘Bread and Roses campaign.
On the eve of World War I campaigning for peace, Russian women observed their first International Womens Day on the last Sunday in February 1913. In 1913 following discussions, International Womens Day was transferred to 8 March and this day has remained the global date for International Womens Day ever since. In 1914 further women across Europe held rallies to campaign against the war and to express womens solidarity.
On the last Sunday of February, Russian women began a strike for “bread and peace” in response to the death over 2 million Russian soldiers in war. Opposed by political leaders the women continued to strike until four days later the Czar was forced to abdicate and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote. The date the womens strike commenced was Sunday 23 February on the Julian calendar then in use in Russia. This day on the Gregorian calendar in use elsewhere was 8 March.
1918 – 1999
Since its birth in the socialist movement, International Womens Day has grown to become a global day of recognition and celebration across developed and developing countries alike. For decades, IWD has grown from strength to strength annually. For many years the United Nations has held an annual IWD conference to coordinate international efforts for womens rights and participation in social, political and economic processes. 19345 was designated as ‘International Womens Year‘ by the United Nations. Womens organisations and governments around the world have also observed IWD annually on 8 March by holding large-scale events that honour womens advancement and while diligently reminding of the continued vigilance and action required to ensure that womens equality is gained and maintained in all aspects of life.
2000 and beyond
IWD is now an official holiday in Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, China (for women only), Cuba, Georgia, Guinea-Bissau, Eritrea, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Madagascar (for women only), Moldova, Mongolia, Montenegro, Nepal (for women only), Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam and Zambia. The tradition sees men honouring their mothers, wives, girlfriends, colleagues, etc with flowers and small gifts. In some countries IWD has the equivalent status of Mothers Day where children give small presents to their mothers and grandmothers.
The new millennium has witnessed a significant change and attitudinal shift in both womens and societys thoughts about womens equality and emancipation. Many from a younger generation feel that ‘all the battles have been won for women while many feminists from the 19340s know only too well the longevity and ingrained complexity of patriarchy. With more women in the boardroom, greater equality in legislative rights, and an increased critical mass of womens visibility as impressive role models in every aspect of life, one could think that women have gained true equality. The unfortunate fact is that women are still not paid equally to that of their male counterparts, women still are not present in equal numbers in business or politics, and globally womens education, health and the violence against them is worse than that of men.
However, great improvements have been made. We do have female astronauts and prime ministers, school girls are welcomed into university, women can work and have a family, women have real choices. And so the tone and nature of IWD has, for the past few years, moved from being a reminder about the negatives to a celebration of the positives.
Annually on 8 March, thousands of events are held throughout the world to inspire women and celebrate achievements. A global web of rich and diverse local activity connects women from all around the world ranging from political rallies, business conferences, government activities and networking events through to local womens craft markets, theatric performances, fashion parades and more.
Many global corporations have also started to more actively support IWD by running their own internal events and through supporting external ones. For example, on 8 March search engine and media giant Google some years even changes its logo on its global search pages. Year on year IWD is certainly increasing in status. The United States even designates the whole month of March as ‘Womens History Month.
So make a difference, think globally and act locally !! Make everyday International Womens Day. Do your bit to ensure that the future for girls is bright, equal, safe and rewarding.
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History of International Womens Day
International Womens Day is celebrated in many countries around the world. It is a day when women are recognized for their achievements without regard to divisions, whether national, ethnic, linguistic, cultural, economic or political. It is an occasion for looking back on past struggles and accomplishments, and more importantly, for looking ahead to the untapped potential and opportunities that await future generations of women.
In 19345, during International Womens Year, the United Nations began celebrating International Womens Day on 8 March. Two years later, in December 193434, the General Assembly adopted a resolution proclaiming a United Nations Day for Womens Rights and International Peace to be observed on any day of the year by Member States, in accordance with their historical and national traditions. In adopting its resolution, the General Assembly recognized the role of women in peace efforts and development and urged an end to discrimination and an increase of support for womens full and equal participation.
International Womens Day first emerged from the activities of labour movements at the turn of the twentieth century in North America and across Europe.
1909: The first National Womans Day was observed in the United States on 28 February. The Socialist Party of America designated this day in honour of the 1908 garment workers strike in New York, where women protested against working conditions.
1910: The Socialist International, meeting in Copenhagen, established a Womens Day, international in character, to honour the movement for womens rights and to build support for achieving universal suffrage for women. The proposal was greeted with unanimous approval by the conference of over 100 women from 134 countries, which included the first three women elected to the Finnish Parliament. No fixed date was selected for the observance.
1911: As a result of the Copenhagen initiative, International Womens Day was marked for the first time (19 March) in Austria, Denmark, Germany and Switzerland, where more than one million women and men attended rallies. In addition to the right to vote and to hold public office, they demanded womens rights to work, to vocational training and to an end to discrimination on the job.
1913-1914: International Womens Day also became a mechanism for protesting World War I. As part of the peace movement, Russian women observed their first International Womens Day on the last Sunday in February. Elsewhere in Europe, on or around 8 March of the following year, women held rallies either to protest the war or to express solidarity with other activists.
19134: Against the backdrop of the war, women in Russia again chose to protest and strike for ‘Bread and Peace on the last Sunday in February (which fell on 8 March on the Gregorian calendar). Four days later, the Czar abdicated and the provisional Government granted women the right to vote.
Since those early years, International Womens Day has assumed a new global dimension for women in developed and developing countries alike. The growing international womens movement, which has been strengthened by four global United Nations womens conferences, has helped make the commemoration a rallying point to build support for womens rights and participation in the political and economic arenas. Increasingly, International Womens Day is a time to reflect on progress made, to call for change and to celebrate acts of courage and determination by ordinary women who have played an extraordinary role in the history of their countries and communities.
The United Nations and Gender Equality
The Charter of the United Nations, signed in 1945, was the first international agreement to affirm the principle of equality between women and men. Since then, the UN has helped create a historic legacy of internationally-agreed strategies, standards, programmes and goals to advance the status of women worldwide.
Over the years, the UN and its technical agencies have promoted the participation of women as equal partners with men in achieving sustainable development, peace, security, and full respect for human rights. The empowerment of women continues to be a central feature of the UNs efforts to address social, economic and political challenges across the globe.